Family Therapy – Cognitive, Narrative, and Psychoeducational Interventions

The Peterson family on May 5th 2007 took the initiative to gain therapeutic services for their troubled son David. Throughout the therapeutic process, all family members became actively involved. Three primary family therapeutic approaches for treatment were eventually chosen by the therapist with the application of three interventions within each approach. The approaches included; Cognitive Behavioral approach, Narrative Based Therapeutic approach, and a Psychoeducational Therapeutic approach. These purposely chosen constructs were applied to the Peterson family system and with their help the Peterson family was able to assist their son David with his behavior issues.
Agency ContextThe current agency, in which the Peterson family sought assistance, was the Summit Agency. Summit is an inner city agency located within the college district of Philadelphia. It is a high end agency that specializes in helping families and individuals with problematic behaviors and circumstances. Much of the clientele within the Summit Agency could be considered mid to upper class. The agency is primarily funded by direct payment from clients who are seeking highly qualified PhD. and Masters level clinicians to assist with their family issues and by private donations given by local university professors and staff.
Presenting ProblemThe presenting problem according to the Peterson family has been clarified by Mr. and Mrs. Peterson as the behavior of their 16 yr. old son David. For the last two months David has been acting out in school and been disrespectful at home. Rule breaking, disrespecting teachers, and detentions have remained consistent parts of David’s behaviors. This type of behavior for the Peterson family is unacceptable and has resulted in the Peterson family seeking assistance for their son’s behavior. Mr. Peterson worries that if David’s behavior continues, many may think that David is a real trouble maker; thus effecting his academic life and possibilities of going to college in two years. Mrs. Peterson is concerned about her son and wants his negative behaviors to cease. She feels that when he acts out in school this causes tensions within the household; especially between herself and her husband. Both Mr. & Mrs. Peterson seem to agree that they argue more and have greater difficulties on the weeks and days in which David gets in the most trouble. In sessions, David makes statements like, “I don’t care about school, because you guy’s don’t really care about me.” David, in session seems angry. He seems to be very sensitive and seems to desire more attention and time with his parents. He states that he believes no one listens to him and that the only reason he is at the Summit Point agency is because his mom & dad just want to change him. Both, Mr. and Mrs. Peterson want David to just behave at school and at home in order for him to obtain a good education and be regarded as a good young man. David states that if his parents would not work so much, he may have some time with them, and not feel so lonely. David also states that when his parents are angry, they seem to take things out on him; thus making him more frustrated and angry.
DemographicsMr. Peterson is a 50 year old white male. Mr. Peterson is an educated man with a PhD in literature from the University of North Carolina, for which he takes great pride. Mr. Peterson could be described as having an opinionated egocentric personality, quick witted, and some how seems to respond with some type of literary quote within every response to family and friends. Mr. Peterson does not emphasize a religious preference or identity and could be considered one who maintains an upper middle class life style. Although Mr. Peterson has published a few literary works, none have been significantly successful, and this seems to be a source of pain and loss of self esteem for Mr. Peterson.Mrs. Peterson is a 46 year old white female. Mrs. Peterson also graduated from the University of North Carolina with a PhD in literature. Mrs. Peterson seems to be a smart, pleasant person that makes references to having hobbies; such as playing tennis, biking and shopping. Mrs. Peterson does not declare a religious preference, but does say she believes in God. Mrs. Peterson has published two novels and takes great pride in their success.David is a sixteen year old white male. He has no history of mental illness or notable behavior problems. David attends high school within the tenth grade at Highland High School. David does not consider himself to be a religious person, but does love the latest Eminem Rap CD, loves to skate board, draw, and enjoys watching horror movies. David does seem to be a sensitive young man, and at times makes efforts to express his feelings and clearly express any noticeable changes to pictures and other items within my therapeutic office; thus indicating a heightened sense of observational ability.Treatment PlanThe current treatment plan (see figure 1.1) consist of one primary goal and intermediary objectives through a Cognitive Approach to assist in modifying David’s current behavior issues. Thus far, over the past month and a half I have met with the Peterson family every week and attempted to assist David and his family with these objectives and goal with no progress. I believe that with the current information I can develop suggestions, and inform my practice by linking new strategies and intervention objectives from family therapeutic approaches to assist in solving David’s difficulties.GOAL: To decrease David’s problematic behaviors- Send home weekly progress report- When David receives poor behavior reports he is grounded from skate boarding and other activities he enjoysFigure 1.1The current suggestion and decision to link family therapy approaches to this circumstance is to assist with significant issues. In retrospect, the interventions although practical, placed much of the responsibility and process upon David rather than a family oriented intervention. It was found that many times David would not even bring home his weekly progress reports for review. It was also founded that the use of negative reinforcement strategies was not effective due to David’s already tattered self image. After further interactions with parents it was discovered that they rarely complimented David on what he does right, and they admitted to criticizing him at times. With this information I believe that it would be wise to now integrate a positive reinforcement plan that would assist with promoting good behavior and increasing self esteem. I feel that suggesting the use of strategies to assist with David’s parents in regards to their relationship and the scape goating behaviors David describes may be beneficial. I believe that David’s parents would also benefit by gaining parenting skills and education. The prior treatment plan did not allow David to experience for himself the roles of others or allow him to identify thought and feeling patterns. I believe that with the understanding of David’s personality and his obvious intelligence and sensitivity, utilizing strategies that assist with thought identification may be beneficial. The newly suggested treatment plan is as follows;Goal One: To decrease David’s problematic behaviors- To increase David’s awareness of how his behavior affects others- To assist David in identifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, beliefs- To assist David’s parents with better parenting and relationship skillsFigure 1.2
Strategies for Change – Cognitive ApproachDuring session discussion I would ask David, how he thought his behavior at school made others feel and what impact his behavior had on others. After his response I feel that the “Critical Moment” Cognitive Behavioral approach intervention that I learned at the University of Michigan School of Social Work may be effective (Personal Communication, R. Tolman, October, 2006). I would suggest that a role play should be utilized with David and his parents. I would ask David to identify any time or circumstance in which he interacted with a teacher negatively and when the interaction concluded with a negative consequence for David. The circumstance I would request of David must have ended with him thinking that he should have responded differently. I would ask him to express to all of us his detailed story from beginning to end. After he expressed his story I would ask David and his parents if there were more positive responses David could have utilized that were not disrespectful. David and his parents would have good ideas regarding what David’s response could have been and they would share these ideas. After sharing their ideas, I would request that David play the role of the teacher, and I then ask his father to play the role of his son David. I would ask David’s father to make sure that in his response, as he acted like David that he would include the newly agreed upon positive response. As both would act out the role play, David would state the words of his teacher within the past interaction and his father would do his best to repeat what David had stated was spoken during the interaction, except for the addition of the positive statement that David should have said. After the role play, I would request a role reversal. This time David would play himself, stating what his father had stated with the positive response attached to his interaction. His father would play the teacher, and at the conclusion David would hopefully begin to understand both roles of those involved. It is hypothesized that this role reversal may change David’s perceptions.The second intervention that I believe would be helpful in allowing David to identify his thoughts and feelings and how they effect his behavior would be to utilize during the session a dry erase board in order to draw the “circle of identification” (Becvar & Becvar, 2000). This circle could indicate the process of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. I feel that the utilization of this type of intervention may work well, considering the known information regarding David’s love for drawing and visual acuity. I would suggest to David to express a time when he was disrespectful or acting out against his parents or teachers. That specific episode would be the focus in which we would identify his thoughts, feelings and behaviors to that circumstance. As a therapist I believe that as we identify his thoughts and feelings during this episode and address whether or not they were positive or negative, or whether they were realistic or distorted; at the center of David’s response could lie schemas about himself and others that may not be healthy or functional for his life. It will be the goal of this intervention to address those negative schemas that may be assisting in negative responses, and purposely inserting positive collaborative thoughts created within our sessions.Due to suspected negative reciprocity and the development of negative schemas within the family system, regarding David’s consistent behaviors, it would seem to be beneficial to utilize a third cognitive approach. I feel that it may be beneficial for the Peterson family to utilize a thought, feeling, and behavior journal for all members in the family (Becvar & Becvar, 2000; Lawson & Prevatt, 1999). It would be expressed to the family that on each page of the journal there should be two headings; “What did David do today”, and “How did I feel about what David did today.” I believe that this could allow the family over a number of sessions to come to a realization of how they are perceiving their son, and how David perceives himself in a qualitative manner. Identifying these schemas, thoughts, and feelings may be beneficial for assisting in cognitively reconstructing the family systems perception and expectations of David’s behavior.Narrative ApproachIt could be suggested that in an effort to speak about the behaviors within sessions one should seek to reduce parental “problem saturation” regarding discussions of David’s behavior (Lawson & Prevatt, 1999). It could be hypothesized that due to the constant criticism and negative perceptions that David’s parents have expressed regarding his behaviors, utilizing an externalization technique would be beneficial (Lawson & Prevatt, 1999). As the therapist I should ask two sets of questions; questions relating to how family members feel about David’s behavior and after a series of questions regarding the families reactions to David’s behavior I would ask the parents if there was ever a time in which David did not act disrespectful or behave in a negative manner (Prevatt & Lawson, 1999). All family members could then begin to identify the negative behaviors as external events in which they could seek to collaborate and work against (Prevatt & Lawson, 1999). This would seem to be an effective intervention, especially for David who has been indicated as having low self esteem and has been identified as possibly being the scape goat within the family system.After a thorough expression of different perspectives over a number of sessions, as the therapist I would suggest to the parents to write a letter to their son. Within the letter I would ask them to express their commitment to helping David. I would express to the parents to write positive statements of affection for David and let him know that they validate his feelings. This would lend to decreased fault finding and negative reciprocity (Lawson & Prevatt, 1999). This process I believe would assist David in reducing his feelings of isolation and enhance his commitment to working against the externalized problems.Furthermore, a third intervention that may be effective would be for myself as the therapist to write a final letter of prediction (Lawson & Prevatt, 1999). This letter would be written in a way that expressed a strengths base perspective and a positive message of hope in regards to family commitment and David’s behaviors.
Psychoeducational ApproachAs the therapist I would pursue concepts and processes consistent with educating the Peterson family. I would identify concepts that may be effective considering the educational level of the parents and David, as well as the families strengths and ability to utilize problem solving and communication concepts (Becvar & Becvar, 2000). Considering the suspected scape goating behaviors of Mr. and Mrs. Peterson, I feel that teaching Mr. and Mrs. Peterson better ways of communicating their own problems rather than projecting them upon David would be beneficial. I believe speaking with Mr. and Mrs. Peterson about active listening skills, practicing the communication ball technique (speaker holds the ball / listener waits their turn) would allow the Petersons to work on their listening skills. I feel that this would work well for the Petersons considering their educational level and willingness to learn.Another intervention I would implement to enhance communication with the educational system would be to teach parents how to implement a home/school communication system (Foley, 2007). This system includes maintaining a chart that is marked by teachers and parents to indicate behaviors, moods, and activities that were completed during the day (Foley, 2007). The construction of this system creates effective communications between school staff and parents (Foley, 2007). As the therapist I would ask the Petersons to construct this system as instructed and then within one session evaluate the process and express the ideas to David. Emphasizing also to David that good reports will bring good rewards. Educating Mr. and Mrs. Peterson regarding follow through and consistency regarding the communication system would be very important.Due to the educational levels of the Peterson family, as a therapist I would suggest interventions such as parental skills groups within the community or the use of parenting resources and educational programs within sessions. It is hypothesized that the Petersons would welcome any educational information regarding more effective parenting. Recommending web sites, books (Love and Logic) and therapeutic games to enhance a child’s communication and self esteem would be possible interventions for the Peterson family. These psychoeducational interventions would assist with the third objective of the treatment plan, regarding the need to obtain greater parenting and relationship skills.ConclusionThe difficulty I identified within the first treatment plan was that only one approach was utilized and it was not an eclectic process with at least three approaches and multiple interventions. I believe that the eclecticism should be a priority due to the nature of the problem and multiple systems involved. I felt as if in order to reduce David’s negative behaviors the interventions should be creative, connected to problem solving objectives and address the entire family system.I believe that utilizing a cognitively based approach would be an important part in identifying the negative beliefs and schemas David may have about himself as the roots of his low self esteem. By increasing David’s abilities in negative thought identification, David will be able to purposely insert positive thoughts through cognitive restructuring (Becvar & Becvar, 2000). Gaining parental involvement with journaling may also be a wonderful intervention, considering that Mr. and Mrs. Peterson are writers and may give interesting and creative reflections.What may be a concern is that David’s parents could identify externalizing a problem through a Narrative approach, as a way of David not taking full responsibility for his behavior. Considering their past negative reciprocity of his behaviors and the parents’ attitudes and expectations, it would be important to emphasize the significance of such a perspective.David stated that his parents do not listen to him. Also admitted by his parents, they tend to argue more when David gets in trouble. The chosen Psycho educational approach would seem to be an effective approach. This approach I feel would assist the Petersons in gaining valuable communication skills and greater parenting strategies for David. I feel that communication building strategies would assist with what David stated as “no one listens to me.” Considering the Petersons income level, community influence and positive attitude towards education, suggesting that they gain involvement in a parenting and or communications group would be an excellent intervention strategy.I feel as the Petersons therapist that the utilization of these three approaches and choosing them according to their specific circumstance and family dynamics that they will prove to be more effective. I feel that these approaches contain all the elements that are needed to enhance the skills and reduce the problems that were chosen by the Peterson family.Note to Reader: All participants in this article and the agency are fictional: any relation or connection to real circumstances is clearly coincidental.L. J. Riley Jr. BSW, LLMSW
______________________________________ReferencesBecvar, D. S., & Bacvar, R. J. (2000). Family Therapy; A Systemic Integration. (4th edition). Needham Heights; Ma: Allyn & Bacon Publishing.Foley, S. (2007) Psychological Testing for Social Workers; The Notes.Lawson, D. M., & Prevatt, F. F. (1999) Casebook in Family Therapy. Belmont; CA:
Wadsworth Publishing.

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The Art and Science of Teaching in the United States

Yeats, philosopher, once said, “Education is not the filling of the pail, but the lighting of the fire” (www.quotations Teachers are the key to our children’s future, they are the ones who will ignite their love for learning. Teaching contains two major concepts of learning, the arts and the science. The art is defined in the Encarta Encyclopedia as “the product of creative human activity in which material is shaped or selected to convey an idea, emotion, or visually interesting form”. This describes exactly what a teacher does in a day, they create “human activity”. While science is defined as, “a study of anything that can be examined, tested, or verified” (Encarta, 2003).The teacher is always studying the situation, examining what they can do, and verifying that their job has been complete. Teaching is an art and science that is learned and then developed through a teachers learning style.Albert Einstein once said, “Believe it or not, one of my deepest regrets [is that I didn’t teach]. I regret this because I would have liked to have more contact with children. There has always been something about the innocence and freshness of young children that appeals to me and brings me great enjoyment to be with them. And they are so open to knowledge. I have never really found it difficult to explain basic laws of nature to children. When you reach them at their level, you can read in their eyes their genuine interest and appreciation (Parkway, 2001, p. 5). Albert Einstein was a mastermind and knew that teaching children was the only way to open little minds to great wisdom. It takes a special kind of person, one who knew that teaching was the life, not career, that they wanted to lead. Teachers are required to do the “dance”, a way of smoothly persuading the students to achieve greatness. This is the mentally, emotional, and physically preparation “dance”, or motion, that develops the entire package of teaching the students how to learn. This is the ability to maneuver through lesson plans, teaching strategies, print-rich classroom environments, classroom management, discipline tactics, parental lack of support or to much support, and all the other encounters teachers learn to juggle. This is the art and science of teaching, the ability to multi-task all the above items and still manage to accomplish the goal of teaching the students.Daniel Lipton, Educational Theorist, explains, “A love of learning, a love of inquiry, comes in many forms. In its carious manifestations we seem to reach beyond ourselves, to discover, create, and uncover. We invest ourselves in and engage ourselves with the world around us” (Lipton, 2000, 22). Teachers have made a commitment to their students, to the lasting learning process, and to the schools that they teach. This means that they are to find ways to teach their class everything that the students will need in their entire lifetime, not just the school year. Liston writes about the love of learning and teaching by stating:As teachers we share this love of learning with our students. To teach
is to share publicly this love; it is to ask others to be drawn in by
the same powers that lure and attract us; it is to try to get our
students to see the grace and attraction that these “great things” have
for us. In teaching we reach out toward our students in an attempt to
create connections among them and our subjects. We want them to love
what we find so alluring.As a teacher, you cannot settle for anything less than complete knowledge and dedication to your students. This requires an eagerness to teach the students to achieve far beyond their expectations of the classroom, a desire to stay educated. An example would be, that of a parent not letting their child leave the home without the proper sills and developments to live by themselves. Teachers do not want their “children” to go into life without the proper education (Cain, 2001).Liston writes, “Good teaching entails a kind of romantic love of the learning enterprise; it is motivated by and infuses other with a love of inquiry…if guided by an enlarged love, teaching can become an ongoing struggle that nourishes our students’ and our own soul”. (Liston, 2000, p. 81). Teaching is based on both a physical and emotional level, or “emotional and intellectual work”. No matter what the age or grade level that is taught, teachers are effective through emotions and ideas on how to spark the students interest in learning. When a teacher is successful in a lesson plan, it feel as though anything can be conquered. This is an affirmation that most professions will never achieve in their careers (Liston, 2000). Teachers have learned that the their art of teaching is to shape and explore the needing minds of their students.Frank Smith, a leading educational theorist, remarks, “The brutally simple motivation behind the development and imposition of all systematic instructional programs is a lack of trust that the teacher can teach and that the student can learn. To be effective, teachers must have flexibility to tailor their methods to the needs of individual students” (Perlich, 2000, pg. 1). This is the art and the science of teaching. The ability to put the trust back into the teacher and the students and to do it in a creative manner. Lesson planning is one of the ways that teachers can develop flexibility and tailor the needs of individual students. This is because the lesson plan is the core of the classroom stability and what will really make the student want to learn. There is a special art/style that a teacher must possess in order to accommodate to these classes. Lesson plans need to hold onto the child’s interest and also to each student’s learning style. The lesson should be well thought out and very well planned, on the teacher’s behalf. Lesson plans should follow these simple rules:1. Identify the special needs of each student through assessment and evaluation.2. Choose a lesson based on the needs of the group and the experiences or lessons wanted to learn.3. Make good decisions on how the book will be used in the class (Batzle, 1996).Other questions a teacher might think of when developing lesson plans is is it interesting to the students and how long will it keep their attention. Learning should be fun and not something that gets moans and groans when talking about. Sesame Street is a great program for children to watch and this program is done in a manner what children, as young as 12 months, don’t realize that they are learning. Melanie Roberts, Special Education Teacher, noticed that her 20 month old son could count to 20 without her help. Upon further investigation, she found that he had learned this from Sesame Street. He didn’t even know he was learning because he was enjoying what he was doing (Roberts, 2003). This is how teacher’s lessons should be, an unknown learning process. A way to do this is to always educate yourself and learn new strategies for teaching subjects.For reading, a fun and educational lesson plan would be to have the students read or have the teacher read a favorite book. When the book is finished assess the students by shared writing or a writing workshop. An example would be reading the book, “Stone Soup”. After having read the book, the students will then have the student make the story into a poster, create a new ending in groups, use a setting to create a postcard, or create a paper doll for each character and act out the book. The teacher can even have a special stone and make soup with the class after the lesson and assessment has been done. There are so many ways to have the students learn without realizing this. Another great resource would be to use online reading sites. Links for Learning, [] has a great resources book site for teachers. These books provide grade leveled reading books.Diane Perlich, leader for the California Literature Project, states, “Anyway you look at it, children in our classroom will live in the future and it is out responsibility as educators to provide the learning environment in which they can be successfully prepared” (Perlich, 2000, p.1). A print rich environment is so important in developing a positive atmosphere that will provide learning in the classroom. With this aura developed by the teacher, the students will be able to openly express their thoughts and personality, breaching the door between a higher thought process and that child. This room will provide a place for the students to escape from any hardships they might encounter outside of the classroom and allow this place to be their “safe haven”. A good example of how to make a classroom print-rich friendly is to have a moveable word wall. This is a giant piece of paper with the alphabet attached to it. When the students learn a new word, their spelling words, etc. the teacher attaches that word to the “Word Wall” under the appropriate letter. This will help with phonics, sight reading, and memorization of words. A literacy-rich environment would include, learning centers, colorful rugs, or grouped seating arrangements, Anything can make a classroom print-friendly, as long as the classroom will allow the students to feel important and comfortable when learning.Lelia Christie Mullis, teacher of 20 years, writes, she encourages “students to reach back into their own memories and remember the fears, the embarrassment, and the joy of learning they felt… I hope they will give their students a liter positive environment, full of oral and written languages, which breeds joy more than any other emotion, That magical process we call learning can change lives forever (Perlich, 2000, p. 105). This is what teacher strive for, an place where learning is the center of each student’s thinking. A teacher must be able to bring the information to the students in the way that she creatively thinks is effective. She must be able to establish positive relations with her students and their parents. She must create the lesson plans that she feels will be significant. The teacher must be the master of her room, allowing the atmosphere to reflect her teaching style. She must have complete control of her classroom and what happens inside of it. This is called education and, education is the art and science of teaching.ReferencesCain, M.S. (2001). Teaching, the Social Aspect. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (9), 702.Batzle, J. (1996). Recommended Reading and Writing Strategies. New Haven: Yale University Press.Encarta Online. (2003). http://www.encarta.comListon, D.P. (Winter, 2000). Creative Teachers: Risk, Responsibility, and Love. Educational Theory, 50 (1), 22-81.Parkway, F.W. (2001). Becoming A Teacher. In Art and Science of Teaching. Boston, Pearson Education Company.Perlich, Diane (2000). Lets put phonics in perspective. K-3 Core Literacy
Training: Los Angeles, University of California-Los Angeles Press.Roberts, M.R.B. (2003). A conversation with Melanie Roberts (interview with Deborah Cluff).Quotation. (2003). Retreived on July 20 from []

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Emergency and Security Management: A Career of a Different Kind

There is a whole field of career opportunities out there that most people don’t even realize exists. But it won’t be a secret for much longer.If you can keep a calm head in an emergency, are organized and detail-oriented, and can manage relationships, then a career in emergency management and security might be perfect for you.When an emergency of some kind happens, the people we usually see are the first responders – police, firefighters and paramedics. However, when a large event occurs, like a gas spill, a train derailment, a terrorist attack, a forest fire or an earthquake, there is a whole team of people running the show from behind the scenes. And that’s where the emergency management profession comes in.This field is one that very few people know about, so competition for jobs is low, and salaries tend to be high. The demand for qualified people to fill these positions is growing in an economy where many career fields are suffering. Why?Population increases mean more and more people are living in areas where a disaster is likely to occur – like near forest fire, flood and earthquake hazard zones. Climate change is also affecting the incidence of and locations of emergencies and is bringing the importance of emergency planning and response to light. We’re living in an age where domestic and international security concerns are high. And, there is a growing recognition of the need to implement solid business continuity practices to ensure businesses can weather emergencies and disasters.Who Are Emergency Managers? For many years, first responders were the same people who fulfilled behind-the-scenes roles as emergency managers. They juggled both the responsibilities of emergency management and their main job duties. They didn’t necessarily have specific training in the field, and because emergency management duties were “off the side of the desk,” they didn’t get the attention they deserved.Today, emergency and disaster response departments are discovering the advantages of appointing positions to strictly oversee the emergency management function – someone whose attention isn’t divided. This opens up a whole field of careers for people who aren’t first responders, but who would thrive in a job where they are just as instrumental in saving lives, preserving our environment, and protecting people and assets from disaster.What Are Some of the Jobs in this Field? Depending on your training, experience and education, there are several career paths you can take. The most common job titles include:

Emergency Program Coordinator
Disaster Planning Specialist
Director of Safety and Security
Manager of Security
Business Continuity Specialist
Risk Management SpecialistEmergency Program Coordinator: One career path is as an or emergency program coordinator for your local city or municipality. In this role, you will put together and update the community’s emergency plan, which will include an analysis of hazards and risks in the area, and strategies for prevention, mitigation, response and recovery. In layman’s terms, the plan will answer the following questions:

What types of emergencies is my community vulnerable to? Are we located in an earthquake zone? Do many trains carrying hazardous materials run through our community? If it rains too much, are we vulnerable to mud slides?
What strategies can we put in place to prevent emergencies from taking place altogether – or mitigate their effects if they do happen? Should we restrict building permits in mud slide areas? Clear dead trees in forest fire zones? Outline clear disaster response routes?
How will the community manage the response if an emergency does occur? Where will we set up an Emergency Operations Centre (a location from which an emergency can be managed)? Who should be involved – do we need representatives from first response agencies, hydro, forestry, First Nations? How will they be trained and know how to work together?
Where will the general public go if an emergency happens? Do we have a team of trained Emergency Social Services workers to ensure that receptions centres are set up and staffed?
When the emergency is over, how will the community recover? Are many people, animals and businesses displaced? Has infrastructure, such as roads, hydro or railways been disrupted? Will we need to liaise with non-profit disaster organizations for recovery assistance?You will also be responsible for setting up and maintaining the Emergency Operations Centre (EOC), developing relationships with individuals, businesses, and organizations in your community, and managing training and exercise programs. For example, during planning for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics, the City of Vancouver ran several exercises simulating emergency events that could happen. These exercises helped identify gaps in training or skills that could then be remedied prior to the event.Where Else Are Emergency Program Coordinators Employed? Today, you will find emergency management specialist positions in many organizations, including colleges, universities, hospitals, healthcare organizations, utility companies and private businesses like shopping centres and hotels. In these organizations the duties are similar – you still create the emergency management plan, develop relationships and arrange training and exercise programs – but the difference is that your main audience is not the residents of your community, but the staff, students, customers or tenants at your organization. Your job is to make sure plans are in place to protect your people and property before, during and after an emergency.An additional function in these positions is business continuity. Often, you will create a business continuity plan to ensure that key organizational functions can continue if a disaster occurs and you will be able to get business processes back up and running as soon as possible after an incident. For example, you may make plans to duplicate and store important computer data, such as student, customer or accounting records, at a secure second location – so if there is a fire, flood or other incident, you will still be able to access files. This role has become so important in recent years that some organizations hire specific business continuity specialist positions.Specialist Positions: In addition to the positions mentioned above, many larger communities employ specialized positions such as:

Emergency Social Services Director
Emergency Social Services Volunteer Coordinator
Search and Rescue Manager
Training Specialist
Exercise Design CoordinatorAdditionally, many international not-for-profit organizations assist in helping communities respond to and recover from emergencies and disasters. These organizations are numerous, ranging from well-known associations such as the Red Cross and St. John’s Ambulance to lesser known organizations focused on a specific area, such as large animal disaster response. Many rewarding career opportunities are available with these organizations, such as:

Disaster Planning Assistant
Disaster Relief Coordinator
Volunteer CoordinatorThe Merging Fields of Emergency Management and Security So where does security come in? Historically, the fields of emergency management and security were separate. The emergency manager created plans around natural disasters and emergencies, whereas the security manager or director of safety and security would be responsible for keeping the campus, workplace or community safe from criminal activity. However, over the last 10 years, these fields have been merging, especially with private organizations, such as universities, hospitals, and utility and transportation companies.Today, many organizations have created departments that combine these functions. In other organizations the roles are combined.In addition to the emergency management functions described above, in these combined roles you can be expected to be in charge of or coordinate standard security functions, such as:

Perimeter and building security systems and procedures
Managing security guards
Risk analysis and management
Investigating criminal and other incidents and liaising with law enforcementHow Much Will I Make? Depending on your educational background and experience, you can expect to make between $36,000 and $110,000 annually. Recent high level job postings have reached as high as $140,000. Here are some typical salary ranges:

Emergency program assistant with a private organization, university, hospital or government agency: $36,000 to $45,000 annually.
Emergency coordinator, training coordinator, exercise design coordinator or business continuity specialist with a university, healthcare organization, private business, government agency or community: $45,000 to $65,000 annually.
Emergency program manager with a small to medium-sized community: $60,000 to $90,000 annually.
Manager of Security and Emergency Management for a university, hospital, utility company, or casino: $65,000 to $100,000 annually.
Director of Emergency Management for a large city: $90,000 to $140,000 annually.What Kind of Education Do I Need? For emergency coordinator or training specialist roles, you should have a minimum of a Certificate in Emergency Management. You may also consider a specialist certificate in an area such as exercise design. For progressive roles, leadership roles or roles combining emergency management, business continuity and security functions, an academic diploma or bachelor degree is recommended.Where Can I Study? Emergency management and security programs are now offered at select universities and colleges across Canada. You can choose from certificate level programs that train you in basic skills, and diploma and bachelor degree programs, that can provide you with a strong base of management and leadership skills in addition to studies in emergency planning and business continuity. Some programs at the bachelor level even combine studies in emergency and security management to meet the job requirements of these merging fields. Some programs are offered on-site, while others are offered completely online.What Kind of Experience Do I Need? To qualify for an entry level position, often you will need the minimum of a certificate and some experience in communication, program coordination, volunteer coordination, office procedures or customer service. Here are some entry level roles that you can often take on a part-time basis, and will provide a valuable foundation in some basic functions:

Customer Service Representative
Communications Assistant
Volunteer Coordinator
Office Assistant
Security GuardA great way to increase your chances of landing that first job is to volunteer with an organization involved in public safety or disaster response. Some organizations to consider are:

Emergency Social Services
Search and Rescue
St. John’s Ambulance
The Red Cross
The Disaster Animal Response TeamA Career of a Different Kind If you’re outgoing, organized and enjoy analyzing information, putting plans together, developing relationships and making a difference, then a career in emergency management might be right for you. To explore this career option in more detail, visit the emergency management careers page, where you will find recent job postings.

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Influencer Marketing: Deep Understanding and Its Basics

We know that in the Celebrity Industry, everything is a buzz, every move a celebrity makes is a huge gossip. Well, in Business and Marketing there’s also what we call “hot issue”, there are lots of effective methods spreading online and “Influencer Marketing” is the one who raised up and outstands among them.Today, we are living in a world full of marketing and business. When you think of doing an advertisement? What comes to your mind? Magazine headlines? TV Commercials? I’ll tell you the truth, they may not be as effective like before. Time changes, an effective advertising changes too. Now, Influencers simply speak up some magic sentences on their 1-3 minute video and then Voila! Sales do come true! These influencers with their extensive and large number of followers can make you outstand from that chaotic and old-fashioned advertising methods out there, on the other hand, it will also bring ultimately massive value to your brand.So what is Influencer Marketing? This article will answer almost all of your questions about influencer marketing.Before we dig deep to its understanding and insights. We first define the two words:

Influence is the ability to have an effect on the behavior, development, character, and decisions of someone or something, and even the effect itself.

Marketing is an activity of a business promoting or selling products and services.

So when the two words combine, Influencer Marketing is a type of marketing which utilize “influencers” who have the capacity to influence others to buy what are they promoting or selling.There are two forms of influencer marketing:

Social Media Marketing: Refers to the series of action of gaining traffic and attention through social media sites.

Content Marketing: Refers to a type of marketing which involves creating, publishing and sharing of online material such as videos, blogs and social media posts. It doesn’t absolutely promote a brand to generate interest in its products and services.
Both have different definitions, but they seemed to be connected.Influencer marketing might be a hot issue right now, but it is not new at all, in fact, influencer marketing has been alive since the time we discovered social media sites. Celebrities, Sports Enthusiasts, and Leaders were our first influencers in their particular fields and brands would partner with them to promote their products and services. Here are some good characteristics Influencer Marketing is armed of:Influencer Marketing is UniqueSocial media communication has already given everyone the opportunity to voice out their own perception. Anyone who has the ability to speak, and has the internet connection are welcome to share their content. Anyone who owns a smartphone could produce high-quality photography and share it with the world with their personal social media accounts. And who among them has the great and most intriguing engagement will rise and might become an influencer.Influencer Marketing is AuthenticYes, you read it right. Have you seen an advertisement online regarding the easiest way to lose those sloppy fats on your belly? Have you ever felt a single cell in your body that believes those advertisements? Or, have you seen an advertisement on TV regarding a soap which could immediately whiten your skin after just one wash? How possible is that? No offense but this is why and what makes Influencer Marketing authentic and more effective than those traditional advertising you see through online, TV commercials, etc.Influencer campaigns are more organic and genuine than those traditional advertisements you encounter, why? Firstly, Influencers are visible and had experienced or used the product or service that has been offered. They are seen as scrutinized role models and leaders. Investing your time, effort and money on fertilizing their audience and connecting with their following is much worthy as these influencers are more trusted and had become the most trusted sources for the consumers. Meaning, people listen and believes in them.Influencers help you with your Brand imageSocial media has the ability to drive traffic to your website. It can create a much stronger bond between you and your customers, boosts your SEO and could generate media coverage. Influencers are absolutely your “Superman” when you needed a hand to boost up your brand’s name and create a big buzz on various social media sites. They will help you target the right demographic, grow your social media network, shares ideas regarding on creating your content and boosts your SEO.Influencer Marketing is Cost EffectiveIf you are tired already from posting some flyers anywhere in your area but did not get any sales at the end of the day. Influencer Marketing is the best method for you. Although there is no fixed price when it comes to Influencer Marketing, either you offer them free item, pay them by performance-based, or others suggests a “flat rate” pricing. But I tell you, influencer marketing has the best ROI. A lot of research had already proved that it is bound to be more affordable and effective than the traditional advertising.

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What Are the Different Types of Online Marketing?

If you want to be successful with marketing online, there are many different types of marketing that are important to understand. Each type of marketing requires specialized knowledge and understanding to ensure that it is effective.Here is an overview of the various types of online marketing that you need to know about.1. Search Engine OptimizationOften abbreviated as SEO, this type of marketing covers two types of SEO. First, there is on-page SEO which concerns optimizing each page of your website, social media profiles, blog sites, and so forth with the right terms, navigation, keywords, headlines and so forth.The other type is off-page SEO, which concerns itself with these same things off the pages you control. For example, guest blogging, forum commenting, and anything above board that you can do to get authoritative links back to your website and other online real estate are important for SEO.2. Pay-Per-Click MarketingThis is really an advertising concept but for these purposes we’re including it here. Often abbreviated PPC, this consists of any ads that you purchase that charges you for each click that a potential customer makes on the advertisement. The ad brings the lead to your sales page, or a landing page.3. Email MarketingOne of the most lucrative of all types of online marketing, email marketing is performed by using email marketing software like, or The software helps you follow the law when it comes to email marketing.4. Social Media MarketingAny marketing completed on social media networks that brings members, likes and connections into your product funnel is social media marketing. Social media marketing works best when you’re committed to engaging with your audience.Community and Relationship-Building MarketingThanks to forums, message boards, social media groups and more, you can now build an entire online community which enables you to get closer to them and build relationships with them. Relationships are very important when it comes to online marketing. Location MarketingToday, you should also consider marketing in your local location but you don’t even have to book a flight to market in many locations using the right search terms and focused content. If your audience is located in a specific place, you can focus all your marketing online and offline to that location.Affiliate MarketingThis is an effective way to get a legion of fans doing a lot of your marketing for you. An affiliate signs up to use your tools to market your products and/or services to their audience, and for each completed sale they get a percentage. You’ll need affiliate software for this like or MarketingThis type of marketing consists of all forms of content such as videos, blogs, white papers, articles, eBooks, eCourses, email series. Anything that consist of content in all its forms is content marketing.

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Short, Intermediate, And Longer – Term Impacts On Home Sales, When Rates Rise!

For many reasons, some, economic, while others, related to the pandemic – related, so – called, fatigue, etc, home prices, in most areas, have gone up, at, or, near, record amounts! Because of the prolonged period of artificially – created, low – interest rates, mortgage rates, have been at historic lows! Since, for most home buyers, using financing is essential to affording a purchase, when a low rate, causes cheap money, and, thus, the ability to afford more home – for – the – buck, prices usually rise! It permits qualified buyers to qualify for more money/ loan, because the ratio of monthly mortgage, to overall income, is artificially – reduced! How long will this trend continue, will it become the new – normal, will previous trends/ cycles return, and how will pricing be affected, in the immediate, intermediate, and longer – run, are, all factors, to consider! With, that in mind, this article will attempt to, briefly, consider, examine, review, and discuss, some possibilities, to consider, and understand.

1. Short – term: Since, the Federal Reserve Bank, announced, they planned to raise rates, three times in 2022 (of course, this was before the potential implications, and ramifications, from the Omicron variant), many feel pressure, to act quickly, to take advantage of today’s low rates, before they go up! Three increases will probably translate to, at least, a 0.75% higher rate, which will translate, for most mortgages, to hundreds of extra dollars, per month. Some things to consider, and pay attention to, is, this rate of increased home prices, will, probably, not continue, especially, at such a large degree! How longer one, expects to keep a specific house, is, one issue, to consider, thoroughly, and wisely, before proceeding!

2. Intermediate – term: Although, many believe, to – know, the precise timing of any projected rate – hike, is uncertain! The Fed has changed, and/ or, altered its strategies and approaches, in the past, What the intermediate – term, may bring, including potential inflationary pressures, how long the economic conditions, and unknown factors, related to the pandemic, etc, will determine, largely, what this phase, may bring! In addition, the attitude, and perceptions of buyers, and their confidence, etc, largely impact this real estate market!

3. Longer – term: In the longer – run, will things, restore, to what we have seen, so often, in the past, which is, alternating cycles, between, Sellers, Buyers, and Neutral Markets? The possibilities, include: a continued large escalation; a more – gradual, but persistent – one; some leveling; and/ or, will we see, at least, in certain areas, some sort of falling prices, for a period.

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Affiliate Marketing Coach – Speed Up Your Affiliate Progress With A Coach

An affiliate marketing coach is someone who can help you lift the invisible ceiling which may be holding your affiliate business back. So much in business it is the limits of our thinking which stop us from achieving the things we set out to achieve.

In affiliate marketing this is very much the case. You don’t know what you don’t know! You may even be running down a rabbit hole in the complete wrong direction. I did this for years before finding an affiliate marketing coach who helped me.

Before this point I was trying to do everything alone. Many affiliates are doing the same but don’t realise their actions aren’t aligned with their desired outcomes. For me, I was focusing only on the things I liked to do, not the things which would drive my business forwards.

A clear perspective from a coach who isn’t so myopic in their thinking can change everything. If you keep doing what you’ve always done as an affiliate, your results will likely be the same. But if you’re prepared to step outside your comfort zone, you can make far greater changes in a small amount of time.

Much of affiliate marketing is about trial and error. You try several things and focus on the things which work. This is Pareto’s principle, or the 80:20 rule. But if you have no results to draw from, you could easily be focusing on strategies which will take years to gain any traction.

A few of the small shifts I made in my affiliate marketing endeavours are: shifting to promoting products which offer recurring commissions, I stopped promoting small value, low commission products, and I started using high ticket digital products instead.

These steps alone hugely helped me start generating tactics in my affiliate business. But I also got coaching and mentoring, and decided to take affiliate marketing more seriously. In the beginning, it was just a hobby, and I treated it like a hobby. But if you look at your affiliate business like a hobby, you’ll earn a hobby wage from it. Treat it more seriously, and focus on building a sustainable income which can replace existing work, and you can achieve much more. You get what you focus on!

Goals are useful signposts for affiliates too. For such a long time I was without a rudder as an affiliate. A goal gives you a specific destination you can measure and work towards. If you don’t have either a goal, or a strategy you can stick to with affiliate marketing, it’s easy to lose purpose and drift off in another direction.

When you’re looking for results and don’t have any, it can become completely demoralising! You need to stoke the fire of your own enthusiasm continually or you’re likely to become disillusioned and drop out. This happens to around 95% of affiliate marketers.

But you need to be in the 5% who stick at it and eventually break through and start making consistent sales. When this occurs will depend on the actions you take and how long you keep going for. If something isn’t working, try something else. Focus on the small wins like a hit on a website, or an email lead. Keep your enthusiasm high and you’ll be able to surmount the obstacles which come with the territory. But if you allow yourself to become dissatisfied, it’s much more difficult to keep going.

Affiliate marketing isn’t easy. It’s performance related which means that if you don’t make a sale, you don’t make any money. This is tough in the beginning because you can do a lot of activity which is unrewarded. But once you make a sale, there’s some light at the end of the tunnel. This is the goal of many new affiliate marketers – to make their first sale.

Once you have some positive feedback in terms of success, you can focus on the activities which brought it about. But until this happens, you very much need to trust the process. If you’re also paying a membership fee while this is happening, there can come a point where you decide it’s simply not working! This is common, and people drop out. But if you have a coach you can trust, things are so much more sustainable.

An affiliate marketing coach can help you overcome negativity, indecision, hesitancy and self belief issues. A coach can help you see things in a different light and to notice limitations in your thinking.

For me this has been a complete game changer, and not just for affiliate marketing. When you notice your own self talk is talking away your success and happiness, you realise you are the creator of your own outcomes. As you remember to change your self talk and thinking habits, you realise without belief there is no action. So belief is everything.

The person we listen to more than anyone else in life is ourselves. We talk to ourselves in our head constantly. Re reaffirm what we think and believe about ourselves continually. If we can learn to tap into this power, and start giving ourselves more positive commands, then we can grow both personally and professionally in a much more congruent way than simply through thinking, planning and attempting things in only the physical aspect of our affiliate business.

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7 Benefits of Custom Aluminum Cases

If you want to carry your expensive electronic items or any type of fragile instrument, we suggest that you be on the safe side. We suggest that you pack your expensive stuff in a reliable case. In other words, you may want to invest in a dependable custom aluminum case to carry your items with you. After all, you don’t want your stuff to get damaged during transportation. In this article, we are going to talk about some major benefits of custom aluminum cases. Read on to find out more.

1. Durability

First of all, one of the major advantages of these units is that they are extremely durable. In this case, we suggest that you go for a case that is splashproof, air-tight, and watertight. This is essential if you want the unit to stand the test of time. If it is not strong enough, your stuff inside may not be safe.

2. Withstand Extreme Conditions

Another major advantage of these units is that they are designed to withstand extreme conditions. Even if you use them on a daily basis, they will be good for years to come. In other words, you don’t need to worry about the durability aspect of these units.

3. Customizable

Some of these cases are designed to be customized. The idea is to make sure that you get a unit that you can customize to cover your requirements and needs. Since one size cannot fit everyone, we suggest that you get a customized aluminum case.

For example, you will need a specific type of case to store your tools. Similarly, there are specific aluminum cases if you want to carry delicate items. And the beauty of these things is that they are available in different sizes and shapes.

4. Custom Interior

If you want to protect your delicate items, we suggest that you get a case that comes with custom interiors. In this case, your delicate items will be safe even if the road condition is extremely bad.

5. Timeless Look

We suggest that you get an aluminum case that features a timeless look. After all, you don’t want to get a case that looks ugly or unappealing. So, if you are worried about the aesthetic aspect of these units, we suggest that you get a unit that seems appealing.

6. Corrosion-Resistant

With the passage of time, metal cases tend to face corrosion. Therefore, it is better to get an aluminum case as they are corrosion resistant.

7. Withstand Temperatures

The good thing about an aluminum case is that it can withstand extreme temperatures. Since aluminum features high thermal conductivity, this type of metal can easily transfer heat from your fragile items. Therefore, you don’t need to worry about the effects of the elements when it comes to getting your expensive or fragile items from one place to another.

Long story short, these are just some of the benefits of customized aluminum cases. If you have never purchased one, we suggest that you get one today. The beauty of these units is they are much better than other types of metal out there. So, the next time you need to purchase one, you may consider one made from aluminum.

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How Cromacoin Functions to Enhance Businesses Productivity?

Instead for entire details relevant piece of information in this world of modernized technology Cromacoin usually operates on wide-spread public ledger known as Blockchain where entire confirmed transactions. Entire ways where users are aware of each transaction avoid stealing and spending the same currency within stipulated time. This process also supports Blockchain as it is trustworthy for an appropriate piece of content. Cromacoin is one of excellent digital currency which has been stepping up to correspond with better digital currencies exchanges.

Where to store your new ICO’s tokens after procure?

There are diversified applications which one should utilize while obtaining new ICO’s tokens some of the vital key elements are visualized below for better appearance:-

• Full Client Satisfaction- It is one of email server which is encountered without dependent upon third-party servers. It also controls whole transaction from start to an end.

• Trivial Clients- The mandatory vital piece of server surely rely upon customer’s satisfaction as everyone acquires access to the network for uppermost transactions.

• Web Clients- It is the opposite of full client resembling which totally dependent upon the third-party server and operate entire transactions instantly.
Where can you find Cromacoin?

In order to get evolved with this cryptocurrency digital exchanges one can firstly purchase Cromacoin from steps involved below:-

• Cryptocurrency Exchanges where one can exchange regular new ICO tokens.

• One can find a seller or just by SING UP process available for procedural module.

• After Signing up Cromacoin is precious for customers for better investment plans.

Input important credentials to obtain freeway service to your account by SIGN UP process.

• It is recommended to utilize a strong elongated password with a mixture of letters, alphabets and other special characters.

• One will be able to find information about the product in our whitepaper which proffers an extreme most reliable piece of information rapidly.

• Get a proper financial report as ICO’s can be started with crowdfunding.

• Companies utilizing ICO at an earlier stage for traditional businesses acquire whitepaper which is the most likely concern.

One needs explanations about Cromacoin just by examining the whitepaper in ICO’s.

• Get a ratio for cryptocurrency along with procedural modules in accordance to digital currency exchanges.

Where are your tokens? Know more from defined information evaluated

Firstly, it is important to bring tokens for your ICO which is associated with your tokens available as per needs and requirements. It can suffer bit of project keeping in mind a trustworthy project which one can send for Cromacoin analyzed. It is suggested to deposit your new ICO tokens where tokens actually bare and help for your new token repeatedly.

• Set up for a coin and participate in ICO to buy tokens.

• The need of wallet which supported tokens for purchase.

• Participate in ICO to buy tokens from Cromacoin.

• Send ETH for a token purchase and one will be tied to private key of wallet.

• Acquire few pieces of information to accomplish with Cromacoin.

• Send ETH address for ICO and proffer tokens constantly.

• Don’t ask for a deposit which wallet supports for a new token or one can access to your New ICO tokens on Blockchain with appropriate security enabled policies.

How to import ICO tokens into a supported wallet?

If one has contract address for token one can import tokens into wallet. Likewise, our wallet has the capability to hold numerous tokens keeping in mind entire terms accuracy, precise along with efficiency which play a vital role to enhance one’s business productivity. Our wallet is encompassed with unique wallet address which is thereby sent just by input for tokens.

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Why Business Owners Seek to Enter Foreign Markets

It is no longer news that business investors from around the world look at entering foreign markets in order to expand their local business operations or diversify their investments and establish new operations in the international market.

Every year, hundreds of entrepreneurial and growing companies consider international expansion as a marketing and growth strategy.

If you have been successful in your business for some time and you have already mastered everything about running a business, overseas expansion may just be the logical next move you have to make.

On the flip side, for a majority of others, just having an overseas registered company and business address makes more sense to them than moving over to these foreign countries to establish a brick-and-mortar office.

Whichever the case is, there are at least 7 reasons entrepreneurs incorporate an overseas company, subsidiary or a representative office.

1. EXPANSION. About 95% of the world’s consumer’s reside outside Nigeria. Entrepreneurs whose vision and target market is a global one would consider to enter new markets abroad thus increasing their company’s overall market share and growth potentials.

2. POSSIBLE UNTAPPED MARKET. The possibility of an untapped market in foreign jurisdictions may motivate a Nigerian entrepreneur to incorporate an overseas company, subsidiary or representative office of his/her local company. Nigerian entrepreneurs who produce and package local foodstuffs for sale abroad fall into this category.

3. PROXIMITY TO INTERNATIONAL CLIENTS/CUSTOMERS. Truth be told, the Internet hs done enough to bring businesses closer to buyers. However, for some reasons, several business transactions may still warrant a traditional business presence in the city or country of operation. An overseas office of a local company need not be that big, and may be a home business address, a paid virtual office, or a small/liaison office just for the sake of getting customer feedback and linking back to the Nigerian office.

4. CORPORATE IMAGE. In order to boost their corporate image in the eyes of customers, suppliers, investors and businesses, some entrepreneurs just register an overseas subsidiary of their Nigerian company. This gives their target audience an impression that they are a company with international networks. In situations like this, the “international entrepreneur” need not set up a brick-and-mortar office abroad, he/she only pays for a virtual registered office in such country plus a mailing and telephone forwarding service.

5. COMPETITION. The fact that competing businesses or brands are entering the overseas market and are doing well motivates entrepreneurs in similar businesses to follow suit.

6. INTERNATIONAL PAYMENT. There are quite a number of international banking options available to companies registered in overseas jurisdictions – whether you are currently established in the overseas country or operating the overseas company from Nigeria. Having a corporate checking account abroad makes international payment much more easier by direct deposits, cheque or international wire transfers.

7. MIGRATION. Entrepreneurs considering a migration or move to an overseas country may incorporate a company in the destination country pending the time of their travel.

The United Kingdom, for instance, grants an Entrepreneur Visa to persons outside the European Union to gain entry to the UK for business reasons.

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